ABSTRACT: By 1987 the world population of Pseudemydura umbrina, a chelid freshwater turtle from the Perth region in Western Australia, numbered less than 50 individuals. Twenty to thirty animals survived in the wild in a single population on a small nature reserve, and 17 animals remained in captivity, only three of which were adult females. A rescue operation started in 19871988, and by July 1993 the world population increased to over 130. A recovery programme was started in 1991 that includes captive breeding, management and monitoring of the last wild population, integrated genetic management of the wild and the captive populations, improvements of marginal habitat, predator exclusion, acquisition and restoration of former habitat, and reintroduction. The integration of population management actions is discussed.